Program Outline for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects during the Tenth Five-year Plan (2001 - 2005) of P. R. China
Main purposes of establishing and implementing the Program for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects (hereinafter referred to as “the Program”) are as follows: to identify a group of international S&T cooperation projects which are of strategic implications to promoting national S&T innovation capabilities, speeding up the high-tech industralization process and enhancing the international cooperation, centralize and rationalize effective social resources and make overall arrangements for and support the international collaborative R&D activities through establishing effective governmental macro adjustment mechanism, so as to improve the domestic R&D and technological innovation endeavors, achieve the leap frog amongst the selected targets and consolidate China’s comprehensive S&T capacity.
I. Situation and Current Status
Confronted with the ever fierce international competition in economy, science and technology, promotion of sustainable innovative capabilities, development of high technology and its industralization, as well as the role and position in significant international S&T activities have become an important factor in safeguarding national sovereignty, ensuring economic safety and advancing S&T development. With this recognition, in the national economic construction and S&T development during the tenth “Five-year Plan”, China must face and utilize both the domestic and foreign resources and markets. Under the international circumstance of globalization and new economy, we must implement more actively the “outward going” strategy, positively involve ourselves into the international community and taking part in major international S&T cooperation, so as to achieve the leap frog in economic construction and S&T development, and gain an advantageous position in the international competition.
Since the reform and opening to the outside world, China, in her international S&T cooperation, has basically accomplished the historical task of establishing extensive S&T collaboration ties with countries all over the world and the developed ones in particular. With the vigorous advancement of economic and technological globalization and the establishment of domestic mechanism of market economy, the circumstance, content and mode of China’s international S&T cooperation are undergoing remarkable changes. The governmental S&T cooperation between China and the developed countries has gradually shifted from the mode of unilaterally receiving aids at the beginning of her reform and opening to the present mode of joint investment and joint research on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and sharing of intellectual property rights. The achievement of large numbers of Chinese students studying abroad in scientific R&D and high and new technology industries have provided an unprecedented favorable condition for the international S&T cooperation of China. Meanwhile, there still remain some salient problems in China’s international S&T cooperation like too broad coverage yet insufficient priorities, inadequate participation in the internationally open basic research programs and insufficient integration of international S&T cooperation in the national S&T programs. With her accession to WTO, China will be undergoing deeper reform while expecting broader opening to the outside world, and the international S&T cooperation during the tenth Five-year Plan will also expect greater development.
II. Guidelines and Principles
The Guidelines for the Program of Key International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects are as follows: To embrace the national S&T development strategy, target at the international S&T frontier and fully utilize international resources, the Program will push China’s S&T innovation activities to accord with the international practices and melt into the globalization process. We will organize and participate in high-level, high-quality major international S&T cooperation, which will strengthen our national S&T innovation capacity, accelerate the development of high-tech and realize its industrialization, and serve the promotion of comprehensive national strength of China.
(1) Concentrate strength and highlight priorities
Starting from full consideration of national interests, the program will target at the national S&T development strategy and embrace all the relevant national S&T plans. Through a variety of channels such as the framework of governmental S&T cooperation agreements, we will concentrate resources to select and support the key projects with pressing demand, great influence and high significance.
(2) Give first place to our own demand and generate a win-win and mutually beneficial outcome
Under the premise of safeguarding national security and in light of our needs, we will select and participate in major international S&T cooperation programs and projects on our own initiative. New cooperation mode will be explored while various channels be utilized. The international practices and principles of mutual benefit, achievement sharing and IPR protection will be ensured in the cooperation.
(3) Government coordination and extensive participation
The government will take the responsibilities of coordination, management and making overall arrangements. With guiding policies and capitals, we will attentively and elaborately organize key projects of international S&T cooperation, mobilize enthusiasm from all circles of society, and encourage joint financing from governmental departments, research institutes and enterprises for participation in international S&T cooperation projects.
III. Objectives and Tasks
1. Development Objectives
- To ensure national security and promote economic, science and technology development in support of overall national diplomatic endeavors.
- To carry out Major International S&T Cooperation Projects and participate in major multilateral and bilateral S&T cooperation programs in order to win China a higher reputation in science and technology and promote China’s R&D activities. To support participation in 2-3 large-scale global or regional cooperation projects and 1-2 international cooperation projects initiated by Chinese scientists where China has got her own advantages and characteristics. Furthermore, to select 8-10 major projects for international cooperation in the fields of information technology, life science and technology, new material science and technology, and environment technology.
- To upgrade, through implementation of Major International S&T Cooperation Projects, China’s overall level and standard in international S&T cooperation and set up 5 joint research laboratories or centers in China and 1-2 joint research laboratories or centers abroad.
- To encourage Chinese high and new technology enterprises to involve in foreign aid projects. By setting up China Technology Demonstration Bases in other countries, the Program will support the export of technologies and equipment packages to developing countries through contracting key projects or establishing enterprises. The new strategy of emphasizing both export of talents and technologies and development of foreign resources and markets will be implemented. The Program will support the establishment of 3-5 China Technology Demonstration Bases in developing countries.
- To facilitate the participation of overseas Chinese talents in China’s economic construction and S&T development activities and to provide opportunities for Chinese talents in the field of S&T innovation to work abroad.
2. Main Tasks
- To actively participate in international open programs in basic research and share the research results related to key S&T issues in the world so as to realize the objective of greatly upgrading China’s scientific research capability.
- To actively join in international hi-tech development programs, quickly coordinate and organize research force, gradually open new cooperation channels, deepen cooperation contents, and expand cooperation areas. The objectives should be to realize win-win and mutual benefits.
- To support involvement in international macro science programs so as to play a role in large-scale international research programs in the areas of space technology, high energy physics, polar exploration and development, life science, biotechnology, bio-diversity, resources, environment and human health, and to speak out the voice of China in hot international S&T issues.
- To conduct international cooperation activities based on the major tasks of national S&T development programs. To support a number of projects which will contribute to upgrade the level of industrial technology and promote social development. Special attention should be attached to international cooperation activities in such research and development projects in information technology and industry, biotechnology and new materials, which will bring up leaping development of national science, technology and economy. To support scientific research on key issues for national economic and social development as well as those important for S&T development. Favorable policies will be adopted for International S&T cooperation projects in the western part of China to coordinate with national western development strategy.
- To strengthen the Construction of International S&T Cooperation Bases. To support a number of research institutes, universities and enterprises of strong research and international cooperation capabilities to turn them into international S&T cooperation bases. By strengthening construction of the bases, international S&T cooperation activities will be more closely incorporated into China’s major research areas and famous international academic organizations. Sino-foreign joint investment and shared risks and research results can be realized, which will create and ensure a good environment for international S&T cooperation.
- To adopt ‘outward going’ strategy to promote internationalization of ‘S&T for trade’ activities and the Spark Program. To support and encourage Chinese excellent technologies and talents, and competitive enterprises and their products to go to the world stage.
- To guide, through implementation of the Program, the various ministries and local governments to adopt normalized practice in international S&T cooperation so as to improve the standard and results of international S&T cooperation.
IV. Main Approaches
1. Improve the Policies, Laws and Regulations for International S&T Cooperation
The forms and mechanisms of international S&T cooperation appropriate for China after her entry into WTO shall be deeply explored. Policies related to joint participation of government and companies in international S&T cooperation shall be carefully studied. Cooperation policies and legal regulations conforming to international norms should be formulated.
2. Increase Inputs into the Program
The principle of ‘funds integration’ should be followed for the input to National Program for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects. Such measures as policy guidance, government coordination, market mechanism, and multi-party cooperation should be applied to encourage multi-channel and multi-layer fund input by central government, local governments, enterprises, and individuals. The government will play a stronger coordination role to organize resources from different parties, pool up the dispersed international S&T cooperation funds and increase government input in international S&T cooperation.
3. Strengthen Administration of the Program
Coordination and consultation among central and local governments as well as relative sectors should be strengthened in carrying out National Program for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects. The aim is to realize integrated results with the dispersed international S&T cooperation funds in various sectors and provinces on the basis of their need and willingness.
To set up a Coordination Group for National Program for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects. The Group will coordinate the formulation and implementation of the Program.
To formulate Administration Measures for National Program for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects to normalize project administration. To publish ‘Guide to Project Application for National Program for Key International S&T Cooperation Projects’ based on the objectives and tasks of national S&T development and the framework of inter-governmental S&T cooperation agreements. Key subject areas will be clarified in the Guide.
4. Strengthen the Protection and Administration of IPR in International S&T Cooperation and Exchange Activities, to Practically Protect the IPR of Various Parties, and to Promote Further Opening-up.
To practically fulfill the rights and obligations related to IPR in the international S&T cooperation agreements to which China is a party. To strengthen the protection and administration of IPR in international S&T cooperation and exchange activities. To take effective measures to safeguard the legal rights and interests of Chinese high and new technology enterprises in foreign countries. To help the enterprises to effectively exploit the IPR to participate in international market competition and win, maintain and develop their advantages in the fierce competition.
5. Setting up Infrastructure Databases for International S&T Cooperation
International S&T Cooperation Talent Database, International S&T Cooperation Projects Database, and International S&T Cooperation Network will be established to strengthen the infrastructure construction for international S&T cooperation.